- Symptoms can begin within the first 24 hours or within 2 weeks of exposure.
- Symptoms similar to the flu are common and include:
- Fever, chills, fatigue
- Headache, muscle pain, nausea
- A rash is also possible.
- Trouble breathing, kidney failure and neurological issues may occur in immunocompromised individuals.
Diagnosis and Treatment
- Clinical signs and a history of exposure are most often used for diagnosis.
- Anaplasma DNA can be detected in the blood within the first week of infection using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
- Indirect Immunofluorescence Assays (IFA) is a two-part test used to detect antibodies.
- The first sample is collected within 7 days of infection and will be compared to the second sample collected 2-4 weeks after infection.
- If the second sample shows the number of antibodies present has increased since the first sample was tested, the results are positive for Anaplasma.
- False positives are common for the first part of the test.
- Low platelet and white blood cell counts or elevated liver enzymes may suggest Anaplasma infection.
CDC Treatment Recommendation
- Adults: Doxycycline 100mg every 12 hours.
- Children: Doxycycline 2.2mg/kg- 2x daily.
- *Doxycycline is the most effective prevention of future complications and should be started within the first 5 days of infection for best results.
- Anaplasmosis is an infection of the white blood cells which triggers an immediate immune response leading to symptoms.